New York voided a state law establishing ten hours per day or sixty per week as the maximum hours of work for bakers. Farm children could more easily acquaint themselves with the big city, and easterners could readily visit the West.
The portrait of American industry here stands in stark contrast to the widespread labor strife of the Gilded Age. Much of the trouble lay in the immense growth of national wealth unaccompanied by any corresponding growth in civic responsibility. They also denounced imperialism and overseas expansion.
A typical career path would see a young man hired at age 18 as a shop laborer, be promoted to skilled mechanic at age 24, brakemen at 25, freight conductor at 27, and passenger conductor at age For many reasons, however, its effect on policy was less overwhelming than once imagined.
Together with rapid growth of small business, a new middle class was rapidly growing, especially in northern cities. The realization that anyone could buy a ticket for a thousand-mile trip was empowering.
But their program was not confined to the South. Workers, observed mine union leader John P. So long as labor relations were governed by contracts freely arrived at by independent individuals, neither the government nor unions had a right to interfere with working conditions, and Americans had no grounds to complain of a loss of freedom.
They hired young men ages 18—21 and promoted them internally until a man reached the status of locomotive engineer, conductor, or station agent at age 40 or so. Those values dictated that, unlike the aristocrats of Europe, one live well but without palatial mansions, fancy carriages or legions of servants.
Stead wrote in"What is the secret of American success? Obviously much of the shocking improbity was due to the heavy war-time expenditures To begin with, they spent in ways that violated long-standing republican values of modesty and virtue.
The leading innovators were the Western Railroad of Massachusetts and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the s, the Erie in the s and the Pennsylvania in the s.
Construction of railroads was far more expensive than factories. Hiring, firing, and wage rates were set not by foreman, but by central administrators, in order to minimize favoritism and personality conflicts.
All that changed in the Gilded Age as the wealthy competed with each other to see who could build the most opulent mansion, take the longest European tour and host the most expensive ball. Some urged a return to the long-abandoned principle that voting should be limited to property owners.
Debates over political economy engaged the attention of millions of Americans, reaching far beyond the tiny academic world into the public sphere inhabited by self-educated workingmen and farmers, reformers of all kinds, newspaper editors, and politicians. Meanwhile, thousands of local strikes protested starvation wages, long hours and unsafe conditions.
Corruption influenced a few substantive decisions; it rarely determined one. At the same time and for the same reason, Americans of all classes found a greater variety of more and better meats on their tables, purchased on average at lower prices than ever before.
Republican Party power broker Mark Hanna, himself a millionaire, said in the s: To take advantage of the new economic opportunity, both parties built so-called "political machines" to manage elections, to reward supporters and to pay off potential opponents. In recent years the adoption of voter ID laws, purge of voter rolls, and limitations on early voting and the number of polling sites—not to mention sophisticated gerrymandering schemes—have elicited accusations of voter suppression, some of which have been affirmed in federal court.
These unions used frequent short strikes as a method to attain control over the labor market, and fight off competing unions.3.
Was the growing class divisions of the time a threat to American democracy? Why or why not? 4. Why did American workers have such trouble responding to the new industrial conditions of labor?
The growing industrialism of the Gilded Age was indeed a threat to American Democracy. The American Government stood idly by as the I opolies, and an inactive government all contributed to this threat to American polkadottrail.com the Gilded Age many large companies took over entire towns.
Which of the following was not true of the second industrial revolution? The politics of Gilded Age America was said to be: Answer The Knights of Labor regarded inequalities of wealth and power as a growing threat to American democracy.
Answer Selected Answer: True. These labor actions called into question the nation’s foundational belief that in America everyone, no matter how lowly their origins, could achieve upward economic mobility. In many ways, the discontent of the American worker during the Gilded Age can be seen in the establishment of Labor Day.
What started out as a small hybrid protest-celebration. America is in a new Gilded Age, or so the headlines say.
“It’s Beginning to Look a Lot Like the Gilded Age,” Bloomberg warned in February, noting that the late nineteenth century “was a time of exploding economic inequality, stagnant living standards, growing concern about monopolies. Domination, Democracy, and Constitutional Political Economy in the New Gilded Age: Towards a Fourth Wave of Legal Realism?
K. Sabeel Rahman* Introduction industrialization as one of concentrated economic and political power—of.Download